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Moraine: what is it?

A moraine is a pile of blocks and rock debris detached from a glacier and transported by it. It is mainly composed of till, a heterogeneous mixture of clay, silt, sand, pebbles and more or less voluminous blocks left by the glacier. The moraine can also form by the accumulation of sand and gravel deposits from glacial streams from the melting of the glacier.

Sometimes the glacier advancing over permanently frozen ground pushes up entire panels of frost-hardened loose rock. This results in thrust moraines. During a very rapid retreat by melting in place, the glacier abandons everything it carries. The ground moraine is deposited in a layer on the bed.


The würm is the most recent name of the great cold periods (ice age) of the Pleistocene, in the quaternary, from 70,000 to 11,500 years before our era. The Würm is accepted as the last ice age in the Jura, possibly corresponding to the Weichsel of northern Europe.
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